1.1 Background of Study
Chickens constitute one of the most common sources of animal protein in developed countries but this is not the case in developing countries mostly due to the cost which is beyond the reach of the common man. Daily intake of animal protein per caput falls far below the normal intake as recommended by ILCA (1980) and FAO (1986). However, feed cost is presently very high and makes up to 70 – 80% (Oruwariet al., 1995) of the total cost of production in Nigeria compared to 50 to 70% in developed countries (Thackie and Flenscher, 1995).
Maize has traditionally been the ingredient of choice for the supply of energy in monogastric animal diets with inclusion levels varying from 50 to 70% (PAN, 1995). It’s important role as a human and industrial food ingredient coupled with drought in some parts of Africa have sometimes caused relative scarcity of the ingredient and an attendant increase in price invariably leading to an increase in feed costs. These among other factors have prompted the need to explore other potential energy sources which are either not consumed by humans, not in relative high demand or resistant to drought. One of such is cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz) also known as “tapioca”, “manioc”, “mandioca” or “yucca” in many countries.
Cassava is grown in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, with 70% of the world’s cassava production coming from Nigeria, Brazil, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (FAO, 2008). Nigeria, the world’s leading producer, produced 39 million tonnes, a 4 percent increase from 2010 (FAO, 2011). Cassava roots require few inputs, can be left in the ground for over one year and harvested when food shortages arise or when prices of preferred cereals become prohibitive.
Cassava root can be used to produce cassava chips, cassava pellets, and cassava starch, which are in high demand throughout the world. Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil are the most prominent exporters of cassava starch, with their production accounting for 95% of the world’s supply (FAO, 2008).
Cassava is the highest supplier of carbohydrates among staple crops (FAO, 1995). There is thus the likelihood of continued use of cassava in animal feeding in the 21st century and beyond. Limitations to the use of cassava in animal feeds amongst others are its relatively low protein content. Furthermore, its protein is of poor quality particularly with respect to the essential amino acids compared to that of cereal grain (Adeyemiet al., 2008; Olugbemiet al., 2010). When utilized in replacing cereals in diet for monogastric animals, it becomes imperative to balance for protein deficiencies, which are sometimes expensive (Agunbiadeet al., 2001).
Numerous options have continually been advocated to alleviate these problems. These include the inclusion of synthetic amino acids, supplementing with richer protein sources such as seed, cakes or leaves and utilization of cassava in various forms apart from powder.
The greatest limitation to the use of cassava for livestock feeds is its content of cyanogenic glucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. Toxicity of cassava is caused by hydrocyanic acid (HCN) which is liberated when the glucoside is hydrolyzed by the action of linamarase enzyme. The degree of toxicity depends upon the variety, ecological conditions for growth of the plant. The form of the product being fed and its processing technology (Coursey, 1973). The normal range of HCN in fresh cassava root is 15-400ppm (Rogers, 1963). It has long been established that the peel contains 5-10times the prussic acid content of the pulp (Oyenuga and Amazigo, 1957).
1.2 Statement of Problem
rationale behind turning cassava peels into Broiler feed is due to high
competition between man and animals for maize which is a major source of raw
material in animal feed and this lead to increase in the price of the produce.
But the cassava peels are readily available and cheap; it’s even a waste to
some people and so we realized that producing animal feed from it will help
solve the environmental challenges posed by the peels as well as reduce the
strain on maize and make it more available to man for food. Also it’s observed
that cassava contain cyanide acid which is very toxic and poisonous. Therefore,
this project is also aimed at determine the cassava peel toxicological effects
on the Broilers.
Some ingredients will be often added to the milled cassava peels to help meet the nutritional requirement of the animals. “It’s true we want to cut down on cost but we also have at the back of our minds the need to meet the nutritional requirements of the animals for their optimum growth,”
The objective of the study is to know the toxicological effect of cassava peels consumed on broilers and meat quality of broilers fed with different portion of cassava peel.
- To formulate the broiler feed using cassava peels
- To feed the broilers with the formulated feed
- To feed the broilers with normal grower feed
- To determine the physical properties of the broilers fed on both feeds
- To determine the most quality of broilers fed with different portions of cassava peel
Base on the toxicological effect of cassava, the cassava peels milled with other ingredients when used to feed broilers, has no or much effect on broilers. Therefore, cassava peel consumed by broilers is not poisonous. Therefore, Casava peels should no longer be considered as a waste product.
1.6 Scope of Study
The scope of this project is limited to feed formulation using cassava peel, feeding of broilers using both cassava peels and normal grower feed, determination of physical properties of the broilers fed on both feeds, determination of toxicological effects of cassava peel feed on the fed broilers and the meat quality of broilers fed with different portion of cassava peel.