Broadcasting by its very nature, is the singular, most powerful means of instant public communication through the conveying of information, entertainment, education and appreciation in form of programmes. Among its unique attributes is the ability to instantly reach wider more various group of people, than any other medium. Its unique usefulness lies in its capacity to surmount geographical and economic barriers to extend to the rich and the poor, old and young, rural and urban dwellers, the educated and the illiterate, the professionals, the majority and minority.
Television broadcasting, likewise combines the power of sound and visual to furnish the viewers with a programme aired by the Government and Private television (Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS), and Silverbird station) station that offers a means of escape from the daily humdrum of life endeavours. Most of the programmes on those stations, apart from actual news events are fictional, comedy, children’s programmes, educational programmes, talks, music and drama. All are geared towards alleviating the impact of stress and the banalities in the day-to-day existence of the audience. The nature of these programmes bestow the broadcast media with a unique ability between Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS) and Silverbird Station, by knowing the programmes and how it affect them, to reflect and shape social structure and change. This efficaciousness comes from the combined weight of the strength of the broadcast media to step directly into the home, from their continuous and almost universal availability, from their easy accessibility and realism capacity to entertain.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE BIRTH OF TELEVISION
In 1956, a motion was moved. This motion was opposed by members from Northern Nigeria who constituted half the membership of the House of Representatives. The debate on the motion created extreme tension between the North and the South, so much that the Action group members walked out of the house and their ministers resigned from the federal cabinet, thereby making it impossible for the Macpherson’s constitution to remain in force.
The Action Group walk out, angered governor Macpherson who allowed himself to be persuaded to broadcast about what he saw to the country.
1.1.1 HISTORY OF BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF THE OYO STATE (BCOS)
The radio arm of Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS) was founded about thirty six years ago in 1976 while the television arm was founded about thirty years in 1982.
There are currently about 4,499 members of staff. The Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (BCOS) enlightens, entertains and disseminates information to occupants of the State and beyond.
1.1.2 HISTORY OF SILVERBIRD TELEVISION
Silverbird Communication limited, which was first established in 1980 by Ben Murray Bruce, started off as a communication outfit, which had broadcaster working on part-time basis. This communication outfit (SCL) started with the promotion of artiste in 1983 among which were Lake side, Evelyn King. The commodore shalamic, one-way, mini Jackson. All these acts focused majorly on family entertainment.
In 1994, Silverbird Communication limited was given 13 hours of programming on the Nigeria Television Authority NTA) to air its scenes of acts, which were basically foreign acts.
Ben, whose main aim was to create a world of entertainment in Nigeria other than the very serious king of environment that we have here also came up with Rhythm 93.7F.M an offshoot of Silverbird Communication Limited in 1997 situated at the sea side in Lekki Peninsula, Lagos. The emergency of Rhythm was as a result of the deregulation of the broadcast industry by allowing private participation.
It started operation (Rhythm F.M) six months after the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC)
granted its license. Ben did not stop at Lagos but went Ahead to open up two(2) other branches in Port-Harcourt and Abuja.
In December 2003, Silverbird Communications which had professionals in communication as its board of directors came up with “It’s all about entertainment” which Silverbird Television (STV) meeting the needs of so many young stars and old Nigerians that love entertainment. STV with its clarity of pictures and interesting programmes has bit the fancy of competitors.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the cognition of viewers to the programmes packaged by state-owned broadcast media and private-owned broadcast media with a view to ascertaining the impact and rationale behind the daily aired programmes.
Subsequently, to advice the management of the citied stations on the need to either adjust or put succinctly the restructuring needed in those programmes. Also, the research seek to blend the competitions for viewer’s attention and ultimately to veracity of state-broadcast on biased programmes and vice versa.
1.3 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Considering the magnitude viewership and their disposition to broadcast programmes both on state and private television, there seems to be intractability on the viewer’s believe and credibility of all dirty-aired programmes both on Local and Foreign programmes. The need to know the relevance of these programmes and impact become inevitable
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION/HYPOTHESIS
(i) Is there any relationship or similarities between private and state broadcast stations?
(ii) What are the viewer’s disposition to packaged programmes on State and private broadcast media?
(iii) What are the viewer’s attitude after programme have been aired and viewed on State and private broadcast media?
(iv) Which of the media ownership is more objective in reporting?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
Due to large geographical nature of this Country (Nigeria), I have chosen Oyo state based stations as a study. Firstly, because of it heterogeneous nature.
Furthermore, the Herculean task of logistic, financial in capabilities is the limitation to be faced in the course of the research.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH
A lot of programmes are aired daily with a vivid political undertone and forms of prejudice. Hence, there is the need for viewers to know the concepts behind every aired programme whether the motive is obvious or obnoxious.
Similarly, to further the need for understanding accurate programmes packaged for television stations.
1.7 OPERATIONAL TERM
-Transmitter: is electronic equipment used in sending signal whether audio, video, or both over a range of distance. Is the only means through which information gets to the audience and normally consists of one transmitter for usual signals and the other for sound.
-Filler: This is a programme substitute, which is transmitted when a schedule programme failed for any reason. It could be musical or a documentary similar in nature to failed programme.
-Channel: Away through which television stations with either private or public transmit daily.
– Viewers: These are people that watch a particular television station. They can also be referred to the audience.
-Producer: Production staffs who oversee production.
-Programmer: A broadcast station staff that is in charge of programme.
-Programme: A piece of broadcast material that is aired for the viewers delight.
-Encoding: The passing of information from the original to the audience.
-Decoding: The reproduction of the original communicated messaged from the encoder.