The packaging concept describes the overall presentation of a product or service in the manufacture or consumers in a form that will protect, preserve, describe, measure and promote the content of the pack.
This will investigate on how a company determine what the packaging should look like. Most packaging is determined by the target consumers.
This study will also focus on how consumers react to products packaging, what motivate them the most and also many packaged products are brought without the consumer actually seeing the product but only the package.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Packaging is the first contact a consumer has with the product and it is therefore of prime importance that materials are utilized to achieve the basic packaging functions.
Manufacturers and marketers have came to the conclusion that the packaging of a product has to be accepted by consumers before the content of the pack will be accepted.
The study of packaging will enable us to know its importance to consumer and the manufactures as well as the packaging techniques are used in order to get the best. Many marketers have called packaging the fifth “p” along with the controllable 4p’s most marketers have ever treated packaging as an element of product strategy.
Moreso, it is pertinent to go do by the way of defining the subject matter of the research topic; Packaging can be defined as practice of enclosing products in a geographically designed inform of wrapper, glass, crystal, paper, aluminum, wood etc. the complement of packaging are the features, shapes, colour, size, materials and other design including the packaging of the product.
The impression that buyers have about a product at the first contact depends to a large extent on the ability of the manufacturer to effectively and efficiently mix the component of packaging.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF PATERSON ZOCHONIS (PZ) TOWN PLANNING WAY, ILUPEJU, LAGOS.
The company was incorporated on the 4th December, 1948 under the name P.B Nicholas and company Limited to take over the soap making activities of Mr. P.B Nicholas who had some years print to that date established a factory for other purpose Paterson Zucchinis and company limited of Manchester subscribed 75.5% of the company issued share capital and through subsidiary companies refrained the controlling interest.
Paterson Zucchinis as a company itself was incorporated in England in 1880 and became a public quoted in London and Northern Stock exchange in 1953 and its principal, activity is that of general merchant in West Africa and it has been established in his capacity in Nigeria since 1899, PZ interest now include industrial venture in United Kingdom.
In 1958 Mr. P.B Nicholas sold net his interest in the company PZ industry, two (2) years later the company changed its name to Alagbon Industry committed and 1960 and the name was associated with industry.
However in accordance with the federal government directives (indigenization), it sold another 20% share participation to make 65% in favour of Nigeria and associated industries. In 1990 the company changes its name to Paterson Zocchini Industrial Limited and their products include Elephant blue detergent, Olympic milk, razor blade, venus cream, robb etc.
The company became a public company in 1972 and was granted a listing in the Nigerian stock exchange. The name was changed to Paterson Zochonis on 27th November 1976, and companies with the Companies and Allied Matters Act, it changed its name to Paterson Zochonis indulge Plc on 22nd November 1990, and on 21st September 2006.
The company adopted its present name PZ Cussons Nigeria Plc. The company in a subsidiary of PZ Cussons Plc, Manchester Uk the principal actives of the group are the manufacturer and sale of a male of consumer products, and home appliance which are leading brand names throughout the country in detergent soap, pharmaceutical, reds, cosmetics, confectionary, refrigerators, freezer, air condition, plastic container and component.
Prof. F.C. Edozien, OFR Chairman
B. Oyelola Vice Chairman
C. Giannopoulos (Greek) Managing Director/CEO
J. Coker (Ms) Executive Director
A. Goma Executive Director
O.I Ifaturoti (Mrs.) Executive Director
A.A. Rayi Executive Director
M.Yayatu Dean Director
I. Batagarawa Director
P. Usiro (SAN) Director
E. Ebi (Mrs.) Director
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY (PACKAGING)
This study is aimed at achieving the objectives below:
- To identify new important packaging to manufacturing industries. i.e. do they regard packaging as something that need to be planned for or so they just present their product to the market in form that they think is right?
- To determine who develops the product (packaging), if the consumer are being taken into consideration before any packaging is embarked upon
- In order to find out roles that packaging actually plays in the life of a product. (some packaging are done to make the product more attractive).
- To understand how consumers react to packaging off a product.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A thorough understanding of the study can be problem with design of skillful question in order to find out answer to the following problem.
- How much the company spend in packaging of their product?
- Reasons why packaging is the motivator for consumption of consumer product.
- How packaging contributes to the marketing of consumer product
- Reason why packaging influence consumer buying decision.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following are the questions which this research work wanted to provide answers to:
- Does packaging has any effect on the sales volume of consumers products?
- What is the value of packaging cost compared to other material for production?
- Which method of packaging will increase the level of consumption of consumer product?
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Whenever description fits the aspect of packaging, the aims of manufacturers is to sell and pack the product in order to meet the market needs and to be convenience for consumer to carry them.
This project is aimed to cover areas such as packaging, since Paterson Zochonis (PZ) is producing consumer products, it will not be convenient to buy products that are not well packed.
This project will cover some areas on how to choose the right packaging materials taking PZ products as the area of study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The problem encountered during the research period are:
- Time Constraints: The time available for the project research is inadequate.
- Management of the Company: The management of the company chosen as a case study felt reluctant to disclose the profile of the internal working of the company to the researchers.
- Financial Constraint: This was another problem encountered during the research work due to the high last of transportation and accommodation.
- Illiteracy among the casual worker: This is another problem encountered as some of the casual worker were unable to read and write.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A study of packaging obviously calls for a clear definition of packaging and other related terms.
- Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition and use or consumption.
- Package: This is the use of containers or wrapper and compound with decorations to perfect, contain, identify and facilitate the product is use.
- Primary Packaging: This is the material e.g. wrapper, bottle, nylon etc. that contains the product name, logo, colour etc. Examples include nylon of pure water, bottle of beer and so on.
- Secondary Packaging: This is the material used in providing additional packaging for a product. It is a container inform of plastic, paper material etc.
- Labeling: This helps to identify the product. At times, it carries all the packaging communication and part of the primary packages or it may be sticker.
- Market: This consist of all the potential consumer sharing a particular need or wants who might be willing and able to engage in exchange to satisfy their needs or wants.
- Container: this is the physical box that contains the product and labels.
- Shipping Package: This is the package or design, employed or ordered for by a production company to pack their product. The design are always from foreign countries and in form of wooden crates or metal container used for international shipping.
- Research: This is a systematic investigation into ad study of human and materials resources in order to acquire knowledge, establish fact, new ideals and new conduction.
- Questionnaire: This is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondent.
- Sample: This is a pertion, piece or segment that is representing a whole
- Branding: This is the process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the consumer’s mind, mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme.