Prior to the availability of modern mass media, African countries have different ways of indigenous mode of communication traditionally. Because communication is a process which occurs in a continuous way either intentionally or unintentionally as it was being proclaimed by daramola(1997), that without communication, human existence would have been meaningless.
But with the avalanche and arrival of the modern mass media of communication in most African countries, the traditional means of communication were trivialized and relegated to the background due to their inherent characteristics and problems.
- BACKGROUNDOF STUDY
Despite the functions of the print media, Nigerian readers often develop slot spot for their choice of news paper based on some criteria which varies from readers. Basically readership attitude towards print media often revolve round the context of ownership, which is believed and obvious too to have impact in their style of reporting and analysis of news.The influence of broadcast media press report program on newspaper has been a recurring theme in the analysis of the Nigerian press. What is interesting about the influence is that broadcast media press report program has on newspaper is the changes in the Newspaper’s management,readership and circulation.However, the realities of today tends to lead people to misleading conclusions about the role and place of the press in the hearts and minds of ordinary citizens of this country as far as their experience are concerned. In view of this, arguments has rose up about the fact that audience prefers press report in the broadcast media more than reading newspaper and this is why newspaper circulation is low and is getting lower day by day.
As to punch newspaper, this research is to determine the reason why punch newspaper circulation decrease and to know if the press report program in the broadcast media really contributes to this decrease. However, for this issue to be more gleaming to readers there would be need to be linked with the historical background of punch newspaper, broadcast media and print media in Nigeria.
BREIF HISTORY ON BROADCAST MEDIA IN NIGERIA
Radio broadcasting was first introducedto Nigeria in 1932.It wascommissioned by john Stuart mc person.It was initially known as redifusion. It was replaced by Nigerian broadcasting corporation (NBC) in april1 1956 by an act of parliament.
Television broadcasting unlike radio broadcasting was introduced into Nigeria through efforts of certain political leaders that resulted in the setting up of the first TV station in Nigeria. This development took place twenty seven years after the radio arrived. 1959 WNTV (western Nigerian television) first in Africa was established by chief obafemiawolowo. In May 1960, it establish it radio station known as western Nigerian broadcasting service (WNBS). In 1963, because of the step by awolowo, federal government established Nigerian television service (NTS). In 1960, ENTV-ENBS (second to none) was established in 1962, Kaduna radio and television was inaugurated. Today, there are many radio and television stations in Nigeria.
BREIF HISTORY ON PRINT MEDIA IN NIGERIA
The Nigerian press (print journalism) historically started in 1846 with the establishment of a printing press in Calabar by the Presbyterian mission. The approach tentatively set the pace for newspaper work in Nigeria. Townsend established a printing press and a printing school in Abeokuta. Five years later, he founded a vernacular newspaper “Iweirohin” initially published fortnightly in Yoruba but later became bilingual in (1860) to satisfy English readership. In 1863, Robert Campbell founded AngloAfrican. And after these, so many newspaper were created
However the end of this era saw the emergence of the first indigenous newspaper called the Nigeria pioneer by KitoyiAjasa in 1914. Followed by the African messenger by Ernest Ikoli in March 1921 which lasted for five years after which the founder became the first editor of the Nigerian daily times founded by Alakija and Barrow.Many newspaper were founded hitherto and Punch
Newspaper in 1973.
THE PUNCH NEWSPAPER
The punch newspaper is an independent newspaper published in Nigeria and it is one of the most influential private owned newspapers of Nigeria based in the city of Lagos. The punch newspaper was established by Chief OluAboderin in 1973. However, the outfit still remains one of the leading newspapers in the country.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There have been arguments and debates from different quarters about the broadcast media press report program implication for newspaper readership and circulation in Nigeria. Punch newspaper circulation is diminishing and this is contributing to gradual diminishing of the company’s income. The press report program in the broadcast media is however believed to have contributed to the reduction in punch newspaper circulation.
In view of this, this research endeavor is considered expedient to find out whether broadcast media press report program has negative or positive effect on punch newspaper readership and circulation in Nigeria. There is need for audience to read newspaper so that they will get detailed
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.i To know the level at which audience are been influenced by broadcast media press report program to read newspaper.
1.3.ii To measure the rate at which people read newspaper neutrally without being influenced by broadcast media press report program or any other factor and the rate at which people read punch newspaper precisely.
1.3.iii To know if the newspaper is satisfying the readers efficiently or if there would be need for adjustment in order to satisfy the readers more well.
1.3.iv To know how to improve on the performance of the newspaper.
1.3.v To see how the newspaper can be adjusted to suit the readers
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To elicit responses which shall give a proper analysis of the true implications that broadcast media press report program has on the reading and circulation of punch newspaper in Nigeria, the following questions has been drawn.
1.4.i Does broadcast media press report program reduce newspaper readership and circulation in Nigeria?
1.4.ii what is the implication of broadcast media press report programs as against newspaper readership and circulation?
1.4iii is it the newspaper that people prefer more or the press report program in the broadcast media and why?
1.4.iv is the punch newspaper meeting the need of the target audience?
1.4.v how can punch newspaper in terms of their reporting styles influence their readers to read more of the newspaper despite all odds from other factors?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will identify grey areas in the newspaper style of reporting and pertinent workable solutions preferred in order to achieve the expected standard reading attitude and newspaper circulation in Nigeria. Also, this research study will enable the editor of punch newspapers to know his weak point when packaging publications for the readers and to make the message clear and useful to them. The research is therefore aimed at how the newspaper will know how well it can improve on the satisfaction of it readers.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this research shall be limited to punch newspaper alone due to the availability of numerous newspapers in Nigeria, and limited time and resources purpose.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.7.i press report program : press means newspaper and magazines and those part of television and radio which broadcast news. Report means to give detailed information about an event or news to someone. While a program, is a broadcast on television or radio. Therefore, pressreport program means the broadcast of information or news in the newspaper or magazine to the audience through radio or television.
1.7.ii implication: the effect that an action or decision has on something else.
1.7.iii newspaper: a regular printed document consisting of news, reports, article, photographs and advertisements that are printed on large sheets or paper which are
Foldedtogether but not permanently joined.
1.7.iv readership: the group of people who regularly read a newspaper, magazine, etc.
1.7.v broadcast media: is the kind of media which requires the user to utilize an electric connection to access it, e.g. radio, television.
1.7.vi circulation: means the number of people to whom a newspaper otr magazine is regularly sold.
1.7.vii Nigeria: the geographical name of a country located in western part of Africa.
1.7.viii punch newspaper: is a privately owned newspaper, financed by private individuals.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Due to lack of available materials, time, and financial constraints, the study shall be limits it area of coverage to academic staffs and non academic staffs of the Ibarapa polytechnic Eruwa, while the punch newspaper shall be the area of focus.
- Gbadeadedokun understanding broadcasting technology
- Bola ojenike the Nigerian press
- Adewunmiolajide introduction to mass communication
- Suleiman Adam (2012) readership attitude towards the print media a comparative analysis of vanguard and Guardian newspaper.