Demography is the statistical and mathematical study of the size, composition, and spatial distribution of human population and how these features change over time. Data is obtained from a census of the population. To do this, there need to be an understanding of how they are calculated and the questions they answers which is included in these four concepts: population change, standardization of population numbers, the demographic bookkeeping equation, and population composition.
Population change is analyzed by measuring the change between one population size to another. Global population continues to rise, which makes population change an essential component to demographics. This is calculated by taking one population size minus the population size in an earlier census.
The best way of measuring population change is using the intercensal percentage change. The intercensal percentage change is the absolute change in population between the censuses divided by the population size in the earlier census.
For there to be a significant comparison, numbers must be altered for the size of the population that is under study. For example, the fertility rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of births to women of childbearing are to the total number of women in this age range (multiplied by 1000). If these adjustments were not made, we would not know if a nation with a higher rate of births or deaths has a population with more women of childbearing age or more births per eligible woman.
Within the category of standardization, there are two major approaches: direct standardization and indirect standardization. Direct standardization is able to be used when the population being studied is large enough for age-specific rate are stable. Indirect standardization is used when a population is small enough that the number of events (births, deaths, etc.) is also small. In this case, methods must be used to produce a standardized mortality rate (SMR) or standardized incidence rate (SIR).
Population composition is the description of population defined by characteristics such as age, race, sex or marital status. These descriptions can be necessary for understanding the social dynamics from historical and comparative research. This data is often compared using a population pyramid. Population composition is also a very important part of historical research.
Information ranging back hundreds of years is not always worthwhile, because the numbers of people for which data are available may not provide the information that is important (such as population size). Lack of information on the original data-collection procedures may prevent accurate evaluation of data quality.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- The difficulties encountered in keeping demographic data/information.
- Miscalculation of demographic data/information,
- Difficulties in accessing demographic data/information
- Time wasted in searching for a given demographic data/information on packed files.
- Time wasted in processing demographic data/information
The need arise for the development of demography information system for national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government.
1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to eliminate errors involved demographic data/information. This is actualized by designing a computerized demographic information system for national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government which is user friendly and interactive. By the time this software is designed and implemented, the difficulties encountered with manual method of keeping demographic information will be eliminated.
The objectives are stated as follows;
To enable people understand their community
To eliminate gaze work in population census.
To demonstrate increased motivation to the census workers.
To easy the work associated with manual method analyzing demographic data/information
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous values to the national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government.
Huge of files kept in the offices will no longer be there again because information will be stored on the computer with the help of the database program.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Owing to the scope of this project work as stated above, this project is limited to computerized based demography information system for national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work is narrowed to computerized based demography information system for national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government. It also deals with the development of database program to help in the storage of demographic data/information in the national population commission Ibarapa East Local Government.
1.4 DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES
Abortion Rate: The number of abortions per 1,000 women ages 15-44 or 15-49 in a given year.
Age-Dependency Ratio: The ratio of persons in the ages defined as dependent (under 15 years and over 64 years) to persons in the ages defined as economically productive (15-64 years) in a population.
Age Structure: The proportion of the total population in each age group.
Antinatalist Policy: The policy of a government, society, or social group to slow population growth by attempting to limit the number of births.
Balancing Equation: A basic demographic formula used to estimate total population change between two points in time — or to estimate any unknown component of population change, provided that the other components are known. The balancing equation includes all components of population change: births, deaths, immigration, emigration, immigration, and out-migration.
Birth Control: Practices employed by couples that permit sexual intercourse with reduced likelihood of conception and birth. The term birth control is one used synonymously with such terms as contraception, fertility control, and family planning. But birth control includes abortion to prevent a birth, whereas family planning methods explicitly do not include abortion.
Carrying Capacity: The maximum sustainable size of a resident population in a given ecosystem.
Census: A canvass of a given area, resulting in an enumeration of the entire population and often the compilation of other demographic, social, and economic information pertaining to that population at a specific time. See also survey.
Child bearing: Years The reproductive age span of women, assumed for statistical purposes to be 15-44 or 15-49 years of age.
Closed Population: A population with no migratory flow either in or out, so that changes in population size occur only through births and deaths.
Contraceptive Prevalence: Percentage of couples currently using a contraceptive method.
Death Rate (or crude death rate): The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year.
Demography: The scientific study of human populations, including their sizes, compositions, distributions, densities, growth, and other characteristics, as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factor.
Natality: Births as a component of population change.
Population: A group of objects or organisms of the same kind.
Population Increase: The total population increase resulting from the interaction of births, deaths, and migration in a population in a given period of time