APPLICATION OF RANDOMIZED COMPLETELY BLOCK DESIGN ON THE EFFECT OF N.P.K FERTILIZER ON THE YIELD OF MAIZE

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Design Experiment: A very basic aspect of an agriculture infect they involve the use of statistical result method implying and executing result to ensure necessary data selected and process to fertility valid conclusion.

However, in order to gain as much information as possible the design of an experiment must be planned carefully in advance; this is often referred to as the design of the experiment.

We assumed that the two populations from which the samples were drawn had the same variance. In many situations there is a need to test the significance difference between three or more sampling means or equivalently to test the null hypothesis that the sample means are all equal Experiment Design is the process of planning an experiment properly is very important in order 10 ensure that the right type of data and a sufficient sample size and power are available to answer the research power are available to answer the research questions of interest as clearly and efficient as possible.

In addition the result of experiments are not known in advance usually statistical experiments are conducted in situation in which researchers can manipulate the conditions of the experiment and can control the factors that are irrelevant to the research objectives for e.g. a rental car company, compares the tread wear of four brands of tires, while also controlling for the type of car, speed road surface weather and driver.

1.1       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the effect of different fertilizer on the yield of maize plants.

2. To know the best period to apply the N.P.K fertilizer on maize. 

1.2       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The data to be used in this project is gotten from an experiment performed at the Institute Agriculture Research and Training (IAR&T).

I.A.R and T, then became one of the only two national multi – commodity institutes for research, services and training for agricultural development in Nigeria. It has been serving, since inception, the need of south – western Nigeria within the context of it integrated agricultural resources and development and training strategy.

It is secondary data since it was collected for some purpose. Therefore Randomized Complete Block a suitable design for the analysis. This is because, it is a two way classification Fertilizer represent the treatment while the maize represent the block, these include Total Sum of square (TSS), Treatment Sum of Square (TRSS), Block Sum of Square (BSS) and Error Sum of Square (ESS) .

1.3       CONCEPTS OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

  1. Define the experimental design
  2. Define the problem and the question to be address
  3. Determine the need for sampling
  4. Determine the population of interest

1.4       RESEARCH PROBLEM

Before data collection begins specific question that the researcher plans to example must be clearly identified in addition a research should identify the sources of variability in the experimental conditions one of the main goal of designed.

Experiment is the partition the effects of the sources of variability into distinct components in order to examine specific question of interest. The objective of designed of the results in order to examine the research hypothesis.

1.5     JUSIFICATION OF THE STUDY

            Through all the analysis that will be made in the chapter four of this research work, conclusion and recommendation will be made and if the government and private organization can try it, then it will improve the production of maize.

            This research work will also help the farmer to improve the yield of maize and it can enable and promote the economy of the   country.

1.6    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

            Since the data collected is through Secondary Source that is data collected from an institutions record it has some limitations which are as follows:

  1. Since the data was not collected by me by the original source, so there may be some adjustment made by the researcher.
  2. The application of the treatment and the yield of the crop e.g. maize and environmental factor may lack consistency from time to time.
  3. The production of the experimental unit on the crop e.g. maize may be affected by other source of variation rather the treatment used on it e.g. Rainfall etc.
  4. There is no control possibility over the quality of the collection procedure for the data collected and it is not known by me, in this case some adjustment may be possible.
  5. The instrument by which the experiments are measured may be table error measure.  

1.7       DEFINE THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Experiment makes the desired statistical analysis possible and almost always improves the usefulness of result the overall data collection and analysis plan considers how the experimental factors both controlled and uncontrolled fit together into a model that will meet the specific objective of the experiment and satisfy the practical constraints of time and money.

      STEPS IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

  1. The objectives must be definite and stated clearly.
  2. Collection of data.
  3. Design of the experiment.
  4. Analyzing the data the we collected
  5. Evaluating the objectives of the experiment.

1.8       TERMINOLOGIES USED IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

  1. BLOCK: Block are groups of experimental units that are formed to be as homogeneous as possible with respect to the block characteristics, the term block comes from the Agricultural heritage of experimental design where a large block of land was selected for the various treatment, that had uniform soil drainage, sunlight and other important physical characteristics. Homogenous clusters improve the comparison if treatment by randomly allocating levels of the treatment within each block.
  2. TREATMENT: consists of factors that the researcher wants to study and about which
    the researcher will make inferences the primary factors are expected to S110W the effects of greatest interest on the responses variables, for this reason, they are called the primary factor
  3. HYPOTHESIS: This is an assumption which is made about population perimeter of which we ascertain the truth or taking through testing of analysis.
  4. DEGREE OF FREEDOM: This is the number of value which could be assigned arbitrarily within the specification of the system.
  5. ACCURACY: This is the variation between the actual values and evaluates grossed value.

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